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Hydration- Battery Permanently Damaged Due to Excessive Discharge.


Lead dissolves in water. If a lead-acid or lead-calcium cell is discharged and is not recharged promptly, lead can dissolve within the water and the electrolyte.


For this to occur, the discharge would have to be fairly deep (e.g., as a rule, the specific gravity is 1.050 or less). The solubility of lead increases noticeably as the electrolyte contains a larger percentage of water.


This process is referred to as hydration and the compounds formed are referred to as lead hydrate. The lead hydrate deposits on the plates and passes through the retainers and separators causing “thousands” of short circuits between the plates.


When hydration occurs, a white milky substance appears on the plate edges and the transparent jar.


This battery must be replaced.